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Electronic Devices & Circuits

  What is electronics?
  Electron emission
  Vacuum tubes
Atomic physics
  Semiconductor diodes
  Passive components



What is electronics?

The word electronics is derived from electron mechanics, which means to study the behavior of an electron under different conditions of applied electric field.

Electronics definition

The branch of engineering in which the flow and control of electrons in vacuum or semiconductor are studied is called electronics. Electronics can also be defined as the branch of engineering in which the electronic devices and their utilization are studied.

The motion of electrons through a conductor gives us electric current. This electric current can be produced with the help of batteries and generators.

The device which controls the flow of electrons is called electronic device. These devices are the main building blocks of electronic circuits.

Electronics have various branches include, digital electronics, analog electronics, micro electronics, nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, integrated circuit and semiconductor device.

History of electronics

Diode vacuum tube was the first electronic component invented by J.A. Fleming. Later, Lee De Forest developed the triode, a three element vacuum tube capable of voltage amplification. Vacuum tubes played a major role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers.

In 1947, Bell laboratories developed the first transistor based on the research of Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain. However, transistor radios are not developed until the late 1950’s due to the existing huge stock of vacuum tubes.

In 1959, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments developed the first integrated circuit. Integrated circuits contain large number of semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors in very small area.

Advantages of electronics

Electronic devices are playing a major role in everyday life. The various electronic devices we use in everyday life include

  • Computers

Today, computers are using everywhere. At home, computers are used for playing games, watching movies, doing research, paying bills and reservation of tickets for railways and airlines. At school, students use computers to complete their assignments.

  • Mobile phones

Mobile phones are used for variety of purposes such as for sending text messages, making voice calls, surfing internet, playing games, and listening songs.

  • ATM

ATM is an electronic telecommunication device particularly used for withdrawing money at any time from anywhere. ATM stands for automated teller machine. The customer can withdraw money up to a certain limit during anytime of the day or night.

  • Pen drive

Pen drive is particularly used for storing large amount of data and also used for transferring data from one device to another. For example, the data stored in the computer can be transferred to the pen drive. The data stored in this pen drive can be retrieved at anytime.

  • Television

Television is an electronic device primarily used for entertainment and knowledge. It is used for watching movies for entertainment, news for knowledge, cartoons for children’s.

  • Digital camera

Digital camera is a camera used for taking pictures and videos. This images and videos are stored for later reproduction.


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